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E.N.G.

ELECTRONIC NEWS GATHERING course taught by George Lessard
at the College of the Bahamas

COURSE GOALS & DESCRIPTION
A production course in how to use the hand-held video camera/recorder 
for Electronic News Gathering (E.N.G.). Also, how to edit video tape,
especially for use in broadcast journalism. Brief overview and 
history of electronic journalism and some issues of controversy.

OBJECTIVES

General

To develop in the student the skills, techniques and art of capturing
visual news through sight sound and motion. It is a "hands-on" course
teaching the use of the hand held camera and the editing equipment 
used to create the short inserts used in normal studio news programs. 

SPECIFIC 
At the end of the semester the students should know;

A) the difference and similarities between print and broadcast 
   journalism
B) Electronic News Gathering (E.N.G.); know it's definition and 
   contribution to the televised news program 
C) know how to use remote equipment, especially the Camcorder 
D) know the technique of one-camera shooting, in-camera-editing 
E) know the techniques of video tape editing (video & audio), 
   especially for use in television news.

COURSE OUTLINE
I - General overview of broadcast news

A) the early days: radio & filmed news
B) the impact of video tape, cable, satellites

I I  - Controversies & problems in broadcast news

A) how corporate ownership affects news
B) what kind of content "fits" visual news 
   - "if it moves, shoot it" 
   - the bias of the visual media 
C) is it news or entertainment ? 
D) censorship problems in the news Does it exist? 
   - Who are the "Gatekeepers"? 
   1. Government controls (direct/indirect) 
   2. Publisher bias 
   3. Self-bias (the reporter and the other gatekeepers) 
   4. The law and censorship

I I I   Electronic News Gathering -- The Equipment

A) The camera: it's functions, parts; optical theory 
   1. Setting up  
   2. White & black balance 
   3. Registration 
   4. Camera features:
      a - automatic versus manual controls 
      b - built in filters 
      c - the viewfinder 
B) The zoom lens 
   1. zoom lens and it's comparison to other kinds; characteristics 
   2. F-stops and lighting 
   3. focusing (automatic or manual) 
   4. the zoom control   
C) The tape recorder (video & audio) 
   1. two piece units (camera & tape deck) 
   2. one piece units (Camcorder)
   3. video controls 
   4. audio controls 
   5. built in microphone

I V  -  Going on the Shoot

A) Pre-planning -- before you go out you shoot.... 
   The checklist (mental or written out) 
   1. full equipment tests, how & what to do
   2. battery charging, testing 
   3. remote lighting kit  
   4. blank tape -- logging, identification, handling  
B) The video portion 
   1. on site checklist (balancing, filters, etc.) 
   2. test recordings 
   3. shooting for the tape editor (in camera editing, cut-a-ways, 
      shot variation 
   4. kinds of shots (establishing, cover, re-asks, close-ups medium 
      shots, long shots, head & shoulder shots,  etc.) 
C) The audio portion 
   1. microphone selection & use, pick-up patterns, placement 
   2. the sound bite 
   3. wild sound 
   4. the use of the two audio channels 

V   Editing the Tape  -- the equipment and methods

A) The editing station 
   1. monitors or receivers, their set-up, adjustment and use 
   2. source VCR, controls, adjustment and use 
   3. record VCR, controls, adjustment and use 
   4. the editing control unit,  it's operation 
B) Editing techniques 
   1. the assemble mode 
   2. the insert mode 
   3. "in" and "outs" 
   4. preview and review modes 
   5. manual/automatic edit and abort modes 
   6. logging and timing
   7. editing audio 

V I   Putting it all together 

A. the broadcast news reporter 
B. the news producer 
C. the remote team 
D. the studio team

PRE-REQUISITES 
Com 150 (for majors) Permission of Department/Instructor

EVALUATION
A) A written final exam or - 
B) A News Video Portfolio (videotape) to be turned in at the end of 
   the semester containing what the student thinks is the best of this 
   work. This video should contain examples of course video news 
   principles and camera/editing techniques. 
   Tapes will be limited to 10 minutes in length.

GRADING 

Project # 1 -Shoot & edit a 1-minute news segment with "voice over" 
             audio only...10 % 

Project # 2 -Shoot & Edit a 2-minute news segment with "voice over" 
             and location sound...10 % 

Project # 3 -Shoot and edit a 5-minute news show with at least 
             3 news "bites". Show requires an on-camera news anchor, 
             opening & closing graphics. Segments must use V/O, 
             location sound & wild sound and at least one of them 
             must be a "stand-up"...15 % 

Hands on test # 1 - Camcorder: Student demonstrates privately to 
                    instructor a professional knowledge of the unit 
                    and its accessories and resolves problems set up 
                    by instructor...15 % 

Hands on test # 2 - The editing system: Student demonstrates professional 
                    knowledge of editing (audio & video) and resolve
                    problems set up by the instructor...15 %  

Quiz # 1 - Written quiz based mostly on text, especially vocabulary 
           and video tape editing concepts ... 5 %
 
Quiz # 2 - Written quiz based on text/vocabulary ... 5 % 

Final tape - Students edits the best of their three projects into an
             8-10 minute "demonstration" (demo) tape (that the student
             can take and use for employment/resume possibilities). 
             The tape may contain 2-3 minutes of new footage shot 
             specifically for this tape. Tape should clearly show such 
             talents as good camera work (framing, composition), news 
             value, focus, lighting, "flow" & pacing: plus good editing 
             practices (insert & assemble modes, clean edits, good audio 
             & audio balance...20 % 

Professional grade - (absences, lateness, visual news sense, equipment 
             appreciation (care, maintenance, security) ... 5 % 

TOTAL.......100 % 

VIDEO TAPES TO BE SCREENED FOR THE COURSE 

THE TV REVOLUTION- 60 mins  VHS - ABC - THE KOPPEL REPORT
 
THE OTHER SIDE OF THE NEWS - 60 mins VHS -  PBS - ANNENBERG CPB PROJECT

A DAY IN THE LIFE OF DAN RATHER - 30 mins VHS - PBS - POV 

INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING - 30mins VHS - PBS - ADAM SMITH'S MONEY WORLD 

IMAGE & REALITY IN AMERICA - 60 mins VHS PBS - BILL MOYERS - THE PUBLIC MIND

LEADING QUESTIONS-THE POLLSTERS - 60mins VHS - PBS - BILL MOYERS - THE PUBLIC MIND

THE ILLUSION OF NEWS - 60mins VHS PBS - BILL MOYERS - THE PUBLIC MIND 

THE TRUTH ABOUT LIES - 60mins VHS - PBS - BILL MOYERS - THE PUBLIC MIND 

1989 DUPONT NEWS AWARDS - 90mins VHS - PBS 

NATIONAL PRESS PHOTOGRAPHER AWARDS 
     (NPPA) 1981, NPPA 1982, NPPA 1983, NPPA 1984, NPPA 1985 
      60mins - OZARKS PUBLIC TV

THE WORLD IS WATCHING - 90mins VHS -  CBC TV 

EDWARD R. MORROW - 120mins - VHS - PBS American Masters 

SUPPLEMENTARY READING: 

Shook, Fredrick - The Process of Electronic News Gathering 
     - ISBN 0-89582-082-X Morton Publishers 

Anderson, Gary - Video Editing & Production: A Professional Guide 
     - ISBN 0-86729-114-1 Knowledge Industries, 1984 

Bensinger, Charles, - The Video Guide, 3rd edition 
     - ISBN 0672-22051-2, Sams Publisher, 1982

     - Video As a Second Language: How To Make A Video Documentary 
     - ISBN 0-915146-06-1 VTR Publishers, 1979  

Millerson, Gerald, - Video Camera Techniques 
     - ISBN 0-240-51225-1, Focal Press, 1983 

Wood, William - Electronic Journalism 
     - ISBN 0-231-02857-X, Columbia U. Press 

Feinberg, Milton - Techniques of Photojournalism paper 
     - ISBN 0-317-1070-1/201 3630, Books Demand UMI 

Eden, Clifton C. - Photojournalism: Principles & Practices,  2ed ed., 
     - ISBN 0-697-04333-9 Wm.C.Brown 1980 

Hicks, Wilson - Words & Pictures: An Introduction to Photojournalism, 
     - ISBN 0-685-32645-4 Ayer Co. Pub. 

Roy, Frank P. - Photojournalism: The Visual Approach (Illus) 
     - ISBN 0-13-665548-3, PH. 

TEXT: 
THE BROADCAST NEWS PROCESS (THIRD EDITION) - BY FREDERICK SHOOK/DAN LATIMORE,  
    - ISBN 0-89582-164-8 MORTON PUBLISHING 
 
Broadcast News, Reporting & Production - by  White, Ted & Meppen 
   - ISBN 0-02-427010-5, Macmillan Press, 1984 





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